The Glossary provides basic information about specific terminology and techniques in the art of jewelry, precious metals and stones.

Openwork  - the type of decoration which uses piercing techniques to produce decorative motifs by cutting away metal and leaving exquisitely shaped holes to allow the passage of light. This technique is very labor-intensive and gives a very exclusive end result.

White gold - an alloy of gold and at least one white metal: nickel, zinc (25%), and sometimes silver and palladium of color imitating platinum.

Hook fitting- is a suitable length and thickness of the wire made of the same material as earrings. It is well formed in the process of jewelry making, so that you can hang the earrings on your pierced ear. Hooks may be secured or open, but both kinds satisfy the same function, which is to wear the earring petal just below the ear, because the hook is threaded through the ear.

Jewelry - word derived from French(from bijou - jewel). It is a small decorative item used for personal adornment. Usually, it is made in a decorative fasion from precious metals and stones.

Brilliant - a diamond cut in a particular form with numerous facets (not less than 57) in order to have exceptional brilliance. The shape resembles a cone and provides maximized light return through the top of the diamond. It is one of the most popular cuts today. Brilliant is known to the general public thanks to such jewelry products as engagement rings.

Diamond - is the hardest known natural substance. It is crystallized carbon. Diamonds are mined in their rough form and then, cut and polished to reveal their brilliance, the result of the reflection of light penetrating into the interior of the solid mineral. Thus, the unique charm of the diamond is due to not only the properties of the mineral, but the skilful hand of the grinder. For more information, including technical information, see Wikipedia

Enamel - the technique of decorating jewelry, mostly of gold or copper, with a glassy coating consisting of a mixture of powdered minerals (sand, chalk, clay) and fluxes (borax) with the addition of pigments, molten at approx. 800-900°C in a special oven. This technique is very difficult, because the melting point of the enamel is close to the melting point of the metal, for example. Gold. Enameling is an old technology, for most of its history mainly used in jewelry and decorative art.

Filigree - is a delicate kind of jewellery metalwork technique. Artistic motifs are arranged with tiny beads and/or twisted threads which are soldered together or to the surface of an object of the same metal. Also served to carry the whole items such as baskets or boxes. Filigree technique was often combined with granulation. This technique was popular in the Italian Renaissance Goldsmithing.

Engraving - performing concave or convex drawings using special burins or other tools as well as chemicals.

Inlay - the technique of decorating items such as appliances, furniture, works of art, etc., It is based on making cavities in the bedding and pasting into them properly cut tiles of different materials, e.g. wood, ivory, metal, pearl, colored stones, gold, etc. The tiles are placed in a decorative way, as floral motifs or ornamental patterns. The technique known in ancient times, occasionally used in the Middle Ages, spread during the Renaissance; firstly in Italy and then in Europe. The flourishing time of this technique was in the XVII - XVIII century in France.

Inclusion - in Gemmology a foreign material contained in a crystal. It can be a solid fragment, liquid globule or air bubble enclosed in a mineral, regardless of its origin. Inclusions can also be a gap cleavage, fracture, or other natural internal defect, or the interfering light beams running into stone. The presence of inclusions, depending on the stone, can be considered as a phenomenon of negative (diamond) or positive (colored stones).

Clips -  one of the most common fasteners for earrings. In the clips, an element holding the ear is a spring plate or specially shaped wire. Both the first and the second element must be placed in a special shoe to be able to function properly. In some clips especially those which were used to fasten the said wire it is used in addition to the pin placed in the ear. The result is that this type of fastener is very safe.

Brazing - metal-joining process where a filler metal is heated above melting point and distributed between metal parts. The joining is solid.

Necklace - is a jewelry item which is worn around the neck. Necklaces are frequently formed from a metal jewelry chain associated with a medallion or pendant. They are decorated with precious stones, shells, wooden elements of various shapes and sizes.

Wedding rings - rings are in the shape of the rim, mostly made of gold alloy. On taking the oath of marriage wedding rings are being put on each other finger by the spouses themselves.

Ring - A ring is a circular band, usually in metal, worn as a decorative jewelry around the finger. Rings are usually in precious metal ornamented with often a precious or semi-precious gemstone.

Engagement ring - is a ring indicating that the person wearing it is engaged to be married. The woman's ring is presented as an engagement gift by a man to his prospective wife while he proposes marriage. It is a formal agreement to future marriage.

Platinum - a precious metal used in jewelry. Platinum is an extremely rare metal. Its resistance to wear and tarnish makes it well suited to use in fine jewelry. It is more valuable than gold and silver.

Rhodium - a precious metal used in jewelry. The most expensive metal in the world. In its pure form is a shiny, silvery metal. Rhodium belongs to the platinum group of metals. Rhodium plating is silvery-white in colour and used to both harden the surface it covers, and to create a brighter, more polished effect to gold, especially white gold. Rhodium plated jewelry is extremely hard wearing, tarnish resistant, not affected by any fluids nor cosmetics.

Ruby -a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, one of the most valuable in jewelry. The most wanted rubies are in a shade of a pigeon blood. Rubies of that color are mined mainly in Burma.

Silver - another precious metal widely used in jewelry. Silver of 925 hallmark, the alloy with copper, is used in the manufacture of jewelry, dishes and cutlery. It is also used for the production of medals.

Sapphire - a very valuable and sought after gemstone used in the manufacture of expensive jewelry. It comes in many colors, however it is associated with the blue color.

Emerald - owes its name to the wordsmaragdosGreek, as well as- smaragdus- Latin. The green variety of beryl. This is one of the most brittle precious stones, and thus, one of the hardest in binding (some jewelers claim that it is more fragile than glass). More information can be found inWikipedia.

Gold  - the most precious metal used in jewelry. It is a symbol of wealth. Information based on Wikipedia: „It is a bright yellow dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. The properties remain when exposed to air or water. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements, and is solid under standard conditions. The metal therefore occurs often in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins and in alluvial deposits.” „This metal has been a valuable and highly sought-after precious metal for coinage, jewelry, and other arts since long before the beginning of recorded history. „ Modern fine jewelry usually includes gold. The most contemporary gold jewelry is made of an alloy of gold, the purity of which is stated in carats.